Project Information
Collaborative Research: Polynyas in Coastal Antarctica (PICA): Linking Physical Dynamics to Biological Variability
Short Title:
Polynyas in Coastal Antarctica
Start Date:
End Date:
Project Location(s)
During winter, sea-ice coverage along the Antarctic coast is punctuated by numerous polynyas--isolated openings of tens to hundreds of kilometer wide. These coastal polynyas are hotspots of sea ice production and the primary source regions of the bottom water in the global ocean. They also host high levels of biological activities and are the feeding grounds of Emperor penguins and marine mammals. The polynyas are a key component of the Antarctic coastal system and crucial for the survival of penguins and many other species. These features also differ dramatically from each other in timing of formation, duration, phytoplankton growth season, and overall biological productivity. Yet, the underlying reasons for differences among them are largely unknown. This project studies the fundamental biophysical processes at a variety of polynyas, examines the connection between the physical environment and the phytoplankton and penguin ecology, and investigates the mechanisms behind polynya variability. The results of this interdisciplinary study will provide a context for interpretation of field measurements in Antarctic coastal polynyas, set a baseline for future polynya studies, and examine how polynya ecosystems may respond to local and large-scale environmental changes. The project will include educational and outreach activities that convey scientific messages to a broad audience. It aims to increase public awareness of the interconnection between large-scale environmental change and Antarctic coastal systems.

The main objectives of this study are to form a comprehensive understanding of the temporal and spatial variability of Antarctic coastal polynyas and the physical controls of polynya ecosystems. The project takes an interdisciplinary approach and seeks to establish a modeling system centered on the Regional Ocean Modeling System. This system links the ice and ocean conditions to the plankton ecology and penguin population. Applications of the modeling system in representative polynyas, in conjunction with analysis of existing observations, will determine the biophysical influences of individual forcing factors. In particular, this study will test a set of hypothesized effects of winds, offshore water intrusion, ice-shelf melting, sea-ice formation, glacier tongues, and ocean stratification on the timing of polynya phytoplankton bloom and the overall polynya biological productivity. The project will also examine how changing polynya state affects penguin breeding success, adult survival, and population growth. The team will conduct idealized sensitivity analysis to explore implications of forcing variability, including local and large-scale environmental change, on Antarctic coastal ecosystems.
Person Role
Zhang, Weifeng Investigator and contact
Ji, Rubao Investigator
Jenouvrier, Stephanie Investigator
Maksym, Edward Investigator
Li, Yun Investigator
Antarctic Integrated System Science Award # 2021245
Antarctic Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences Award # 2021245
Antarctic Integrated System Science Award # 1643901
Antarctic Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences Award # 1643901
Antarctic Integrated System Science Award # 1643735
AMD - DIF Record(s)
Data Management Plan
None in the Database
Product Level:
0 (raw data)
  1. Labrousse, S., Orgeret, F. Solow, A. R., Barbraud, C., Bost, C. A., Sallee, J.-B., Weimerskirch, H., and Jenouvrier, S., 2019, First odyssey beneath the sea ice of juvenile emperor penguins in East Antarctica, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 609, 1-16. (doi:10.3354/meps12831)
  2. Trathan, P. N., Wienecke, B., Barbraud, C., Jenouvrier, S., Kooyman, G., Le Bohec, C.,Fretwell, P. T. (2020). The emperor penguin - Vulnerable to projected rates of warming and sea ice loss. Biological Conservation, 241, 108216. (doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2019.108216)
  3. Labrousse, S., Fraser, A. D., Sumner, M., Tamura, T., Pinaud, D., Wienecke, B., … Jenouvrier, S. (2019). Dynamic Fine‐Scale Sea Icescape Shapes Adult Emperor Penguin Foraging Habitat in East Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(20), 11206–11218. (doi:10.1029/2019gl084347)
  4. Jenouvrier S., Iles D., Labrousse S., Landrum L., Garnier J., Caswell H., Barbraud C., Weimerskirch H., LaRue M., Ji R., Holland M. (2020). The Paris Agreement objectives might halt future declines of emperor penguins. Global Change Biology, 26: 1170-1184 (doi:10.1111/gcb.14864)
  5. Labrousse S., Fraser A., Sumner M., Le Manach F., Sauser C., Horstmann I., Devane E., Delord K., Jenouvrier S., † and Christophe B†. (2021). Landfast ice: a major driver of reproductive success in a polar seabird. Biology Letter, 7: 20210097 (doi:10.1098/rsbl.2021.0097)
  6. Schultz,C., Doney, S.C., Zhang, W.G., Regan, H., Holland, P., Meredith, M.P., & Stammerjohn., (2020) Modeling of the influence of Sea Ice Cycle and Langmuir Circulation on the Upper Ocean Mixed Layer Depth and Freshwater Distribution at the West Antarctic Peninsula. Journal of Geophysical Research:Oceans, 125(8) (doi:10.1029/2020jc016109)
  7. Ji, B. Y., Sandwith, Z. O., Williams, W. J., Diaconescu, O., Ji, R., Li, Y., Van Scoy, E., Yamamoto‐Kawai, M., Zimmermann, S., & Stanley, R. H. R. (2019). Variations in Rates of Biological Production in the Beaufort Gyre as the Arctic Changes: Rates From 2011 to 2016. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(6), 3628–3644. Portico. (doi:10.1029/2018jc014805)
Platforms and Instruments

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